Toraja traditional house

Toraja tribe is the tribe who settled in the mountainous northern part of South Sulawesi, Indonesia. Its population is estimated about 650,000 people, with 450,000 of them still live in Tana Toraja. The majority of the Toraja embraced Christianity, while some embraced Islam and kepercayaananimisme known as Aluk To Dolo. The Indonesian government has recognized this belief as part of Hindu Dharma.

Tonkin Gulf, located between northern Vietnam and southern China, believed to be the origin of the Toraja.
In the 1920s, the mission of the spread of Christianity began to run with the help of the colonial government Belanda.Selain spread the religion, the Dutch abolished slavery and local taxes apply. A line drawn around the area and called Tanah Toraja Sa'dan. Tanah Toraja originally a subdivision of the kingdom Luwu who claim the region. In 1946, the Netherlands gave Tanah Toraja Regentschap status, and Indonesia recognize as a district in 1957.


The family is the primary social and political groups in the Toraja. Each village is a large family. Each tongkonan has made a name as the name of the village. Family Friendly maintain village unity. Marriage with distant cousins ​​(fourth cousins ​​and beyond) is a common practice that strengthens the relationship kekerabatan.Suku Toraja prohibits marriage with close cousins ​​(up to a third cousin) except for nobles, to prevent the spread of wealth.
 Ongoing kinship reciprocity, in the sense that large families help each other in agriculture, share in a ritual buffalo, and each pay debts.
Everyone is a member of the family of his mother and father. Children, therefore, inherit many things from her mother and father, including land and even family debts.


Toraja traditional belief system is polytheistic animism called Aluk, or "the way" (sometimes translated as "law"). In the Toraja myth, the ancestors of the Toraja came from heaven using stairs are then used by the Toraja as a way of dealing with Puang Matua, the creator god.
Toraja other gods is Pong Banggai in Rante (god of the earth), Indo 'Ongon-Ongon (goddess of earthquakes), Pong Lalondong (god of death), Indo' Belo tumbles (goddess of treatment).
 The common law rule that death and life rituals be separated. Toraja believe that the ritual of death will destroy the body when combined with a ritual practice ritual kehidupan.Kedua equally important. When there are missionaries from the Netherlands, Christians are not allowed to attend or Toraja ritual life, but allowed to perform death rituals. As a result, death rituals are often performed to date, but the ritual had begun life is rarely implemented.

Tongkonan are traditional Toraja houses standing on a pile of wood and decorated with carved red, black, and yellow. The word "tongkonan" comes from Toraja tongkon ("sit").
Tongkonan is central to the social life of the Toraja. Rituals associated with tongkonan very important in the spiritual life of Toraja therefore all family members are required to participate because Tongkonan melambangan their relationship with their fathers.
There are three types of tongkonan. Tongkonan layuk is the supreme power, which is used as the central "government". Tongkonan pekamberan belongs to a family member who has a certain authority in customs.

Toraja language is only spoken and not have a writing system. To show kosep religious and social, ethnic Toraja wood carving and making menyebutnyaPa'ssura (or "writing"). Therefore, the woodcut is a manifestation of Toraja culture.
In Toraja society, the funeral ritual is the most important and costly. The more rich and powerful person, the funeral costs will be more expensive.
The funeral was recently held sometime after weeks, months, even years, since the death in question, in order for the families left behind to gather enough money to cover funeral expenses.
In this waiting period, the body is wrapped with a few strands of cloth and kept under tongkonan.
There are three ways funeral: The coffin can be stored in a cave, or in a carved stone grave, or hung on a cliff. The rich are sometimes buried in tombs carved stone. The tomb is usually costly and time making approximately a few months. In some areas, a stone cave used to save the body of the entire family. Wood sculpture called tau tau is usually placed in the cave and facing luar.Peti dead baby or child with a rope hanging on the cliff side. Rope usually last for a year before making his casket rot and fall.

Music and Dance
Toraja perform dances on several occasions, mostly in the burial ceremony. They dance to show his grief, and to honor. First of all, a group of men formed a circle and sang all night in honor of the deceased (a ritual called terseebut Ma'badong) Ritual is considered as the most important component in the funeral and
 Ma'randing dance procession began when the bodies were taken from the granary into rante, where funeral. During the ceremony, the women perform a dance Ma'katia while singing and wearing a feathered dress costumes.
 Toraja tribe singing and dancing during musimpanen. Ma'bugi dance performed to celebrate Thanksgiving Day.
 tarianMa'gandangi displayed when the Toraja were pounding rice
 war dance, like dance Manimbong performed by men and then followed by a dance Ma'dandan by women.
Toraja ceremony Ma'bua is important when religious leaders wearing buffalo head and dance around the sacred tree.

Musical Tradisional Toraja
Examples of traditional musical instruments Toraja is a bamboo flute called Pa'suling. Six hole flute is played at many dances, such as the dance Ma'bondensan, when the instrument is played with a group of men who dance with no shirt and long finger nails. Toraja also have other musical instruments, such Pa'pelle made from palm leaves and played in harvest and when the opening ceremony.

Toraja language is the dominant language in Tana Toraja, with Sa'dan Toraja as a utama.Bahasa Indonesian dialect. as the national language is the official language and is used by the public,
Language Variety. Toraja including Kalumpang, Mamasa, Tae ', Talondo', Toala ', and Toraja-Sa'dan, and included in the Malayo-Polynesian language of the Austronesian At first, the geographical nature of Tana Toraja formed many dialects isolated in Toraja languages itself.

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